Professor of Philosophy, Cal State Fullerton

AOS - Metaphysics, Language, Epistemology

AOC - Logic, History of Philosophy (Analytic and American Pragmatism - esp. C.S. Peirce)

Black and White Star in Circle


From Scotland to the OC

I grew up in Scotland and studied philosophy as an undergraduate at the University of Edinburgh (1997-2001), where I was extremely fortunate to be taught by terrific philosophers like Rae Langton, Richard Holton, Alexander Bird, Huw Price, Gonzalo Rodriguez-Pereyra, and Timothy Williamson.

I did my PhD in Sheffield (2003-2007) with Chris Hookway (retired) and Rob Hopkins (now at NYU). While there I was profoundly influenced by the remarkably friendly, pluralistic, and rigorous environment and by the strong feminist community created by Professors and fellow students such as Jenny Saul, Lindsey Porter, Jules Holroyd, Komarine Romdenh-Romluc, and many others.

My dissertation defended the idea that truth is a response-dependent concept and that this is a novel way to frame and defend classical pragmatism and its critique of metaphysical realism.

After several years of temporary appointments in the UK (at Sheffield, Nottingham, and Hull), I was hired by CSUF in 2011 as an Assistant Professor. I was promoted to Associate Professor in 2017 and Full Professor in 2022.

At the upper division, I regularly teach metaphysics, philosophy of language, American Philosophy, and Symbolic Logic. At the lower division, I regularly teach introduction to logic and introduction to philosophy.  I am currently developing an empirically informed critical thinking class for the 100 level. 

In August 2020 I became the editor for the category on Charles S. Peirce



Research Project

The late Richard Rorty made pragmatism famous, some might say notorious, with a provocative question and answer about the concept of truth. Question: given that any belief of ours may turn out to be false, how is it possible for philosophy, or any sort of inquiry, to aim at truth? Answer: you cannot aim for something you cannot recognize, thus it makes no sense for inquiry to aim at truth - we must learn to be satisfied with more modest goals, such as justification. 

I am one of those 'new pragmatists' who argue that Rorty's iconoclastic, post-truth spin on pragmatism is a betrayal of its original, central mission, that it relies on and surrenders to the very kinds of Cartesian ideas and arguments that the Classical Pragmatists opposed. I believe pragmatism's conception of truth is a way of reconstructing, rather than rejecting, concepts such as realism, mind-independence, and objectivity, by rescuing them from the clutches of nominalistic and metaphysically realist metaphysics.  

In recent years I have been especially influenced by several remarkable pragmatism scholars, particularly Cheryl Misak, Robert Lane, Diana Heney, Ken Boyd, Cathy Legg, Richard Kenneth Atkins, and Shannon Dea, among others.

For a full list of publications, please visit my PhilPeople page or my department page.



It is commonplace to describe the pragmatist conception of truth as incompatible with correspondence theory. This popular description relies on a deflationary reading of Peirce and James’s many apparent endorsements of correspondence. This reading says they regarded it as a mere platitude or truism, not as a substantive piece of philosophical theorizing. There are two main reasons typically offered in support of this platitude narrative – its consonance with Peirce’s original formulation of PT from 1878, and the objections that pragmatists frequently raised against various notions traditionally associated with CT. I argue that neither reason is compelling and that PT and CT are compatible conceptions of truth.


(In progress)

I am currently working on a book about Peirce's Conception of Truth, which examines not only Peirce's own remarks on the topic, but the large body of secondary literature they have generated in recent decades. I hope to provide a novel framework for thinking about the various ways we might defend Peirce's central idea that truth is somehow internally connected to inquiry and perhaps also to belief and assertion, while also embracing a robust form of realism.



Some Favorite Classes

These are four of the classes I regularly teach, which touch upon my research interests.



American War Cemetery
Image by Tbel Abuseridze

Typically runs each fall

During the late 19th and early 20th century, Americans grappled with numerous difficult philosophical issues: ethical/political issues about race and justice through civil war, slavery, and reconstruction; existential/moral issues about faith, reason, and humanity’s place in the universe through the Darwinian revolution; epistemological issues about the nature and significance of scientific inquiry through the birth and growth of scientific institutions. From these struggles emerged a distinctively American school of thought named pragmatism, roughly the conviction that the measure and full meaning of any idea lies in its practical consequences. There has always been lively disagreement about what pragmatism is. Its influence and impact has also reached far beyond those who were comfortable identifying themselves with the label ‘pragmatist’, and helped shape both the Analytic and Continental traditions, through figures as diverse as Quine, Heidegger, Wittgenstein, and Derrida. By studying a selection of the many and varied ideas and thinkers associated with pragmatism (chiefly Peirce, James, Dewey, Addams, DuBois, Cooper, and Santayana), we shall endeavor to identify some of the practical consequences that might follow from calling oneself a pragmatist and consider its usefulness as a philosophical orientation. In the process, we shall endeavor to identify some of the practical consequences of being an “American” and a “philosopher”.

Usually runs every 3rd or 4th semester

What, if anything, can philosophical reflection tell us about the world? Can it tell us about the nature of time, the self, race, or gender? Can it tell us what reality is like independently of how it seems to us to be? Many are skeptical that there is anything to be gained by reasoning about the nature of reality from the comfort of one’s armchair. Surely, if you want to understand the world, you have to go out an investigate it, become a scientist of some kind? We will examine some popular forms of skepticism about the possibility of metaphysics and see how the discipline has changed significantly in response over the past hundred years or so.



Image by Dmitry Ratushny

Usually runs every 3rd or 4th semester

This course addresses three main themes in the recent philosophy of language: (1) semantics, or the study of the nature of meaning and truth; (2) pragmatics, or the study of the nature of speech-acts, conversational norms, implicatures, etc.; and (3) the application of all these concepts and theories to ethically and politically significant speech (e.g. slurs, generics, propaganda, pornography, etc.).

Every spring semester

This class is an introduction to symbolic logic, covering both sentential and predicate logics. The emphasis is on developing logical skills, particularly translation and proof, through frequent practice with clear and supportive feedback. This class is part of a campus-wide equity initiative aimed at reducing achievement gaps, so I spend a little time each semester discussing fixed vs. growth mindsets, belonging, grit and other topics from recent research on effective pedagogy. I also meet with other faculty teaching similar classes (e.g. in math) to discuss techniques designed to reduce achievement gaps and attrition.



In my spare time I write, arrange, perform, mix, and (am beginning to learn how to) master my own music, plus music I co-write with my friend and colleague Jon Bruschke. Our first EP is on Spotify (here). I've also recently joined a punk cover band called The Punkertons (we play Blink 182, Green Day, The Offspring, etc. and hope to play our first show in Orange County soon). Over the years I have written rock music, prog, singer-songwriter, classical guitar music, and even some electronica. Other Sam was my band in my undergraduate days. 

I play World Team Tennis in my home city of Irvine, where I also love walking my shepherd-husky cross Kaia (pictured) and visiting SoCal's stunning coastline, especially Laguna Beach. In the wake of Twitter's imminent demise, you can find me on Mastodon here